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MEETING HIGH-QUALITY RWA COMMERCIAL DEMAND THROUGH INNOVATIVE DESIGN


Published:

Proceedings of the 8th European Symposium, held 29 September - 1 October, 1999 in Toulouse, France.

Issued:

30 Sep, 1999

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Abstract



A changing satellite market, with an ever-increasing commercial presence, has driven industry to respond with minimal cost and high-volume production. This emergence fuels an increasing pressure on space component engineers to meet the high-volume, low-cost, short-cycle demand without compromising quality or performance. Honeywell is creatively meeting current commercial Reaction Wheel Assembly (RWA) component challenges with an evolutionary RWA design, the HR14, as part of its Constellation Series family of RWAs. This series of RWAs advances the state-of-theart for large-volume, low-cost, high-producibility designs while preserving legendary Honeywell value in performance and expected on-orbit longevity.


Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) for the Space Shuttle


Published:

NASA handout

Issued:

2 Aug, 3002

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Abstract



Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) technology has proven its value in many industrial applications, commercial and military aviaiation, and space programs. These specific IVHM technologies offer dramatic improvements in all phases within the life cycles of a system: - Diagnostics - Prognostics - Procedure Management - Decision Support - Automation - Impact Analysis - These technologies can be adapted into the Space Shuttle program using a low-risk, high-benefit approach to improve safety, to help the flight crew be situationally aware, and reduce flight and ground operation costs. A complete retrofit of the shuttle with an IVHM system is cost prohibitive, therefore, a phased approach to deployment starting with analysis and optimization progressing through ground-based deployment in low criticality operational use and culminating in flight-critical applications on board the vehicle is recommended. The Vehicle Health Monitor System (VHMS), Enhanced Caution and Warning (ECW), and various Service Life Extension Program (SLEP) elements will all benefit from IVHM technology. This white paper presents a roadmap that brings IVHM technology to the Space Shuttle program in a manner to maximize its effectiveness and minimize its costs.


Next Generation Space Avionics: A high reliability system architecture based on a layered modular implementation


Published:

The 23rd Digital Avionics Systems Conference, 2004. DASC 04.

Issued:

29 Oct, 2004

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Abstract



Advances in electronics over the past decade have produced major improvements in the power and flexibility of personal computer systems. Unfortunately current avionics systems for space applications typically have not leveraged these COTS advantages. Recently, there has been a trend toward utilization of commercial bus interconnects, primarily VME and PCI. These parallel interconnects have the disadvantage that a single failure can disable an entire string of the redundancy. Honeywell has developed a patent pending architecture for an avionics system that combines the high reliability of previous serial systems with the flexibility and openness of direct COTS bus interface. A decade ago, the state of the art for avionics systems made a step change from the PAVE PILLAR systems of the 1980's to the integrated modular avionics (IMA) used in the Boeing 777. This next generation avionics architecture is not based upon traditional Byzantine redundancy structures, but on a truth based scheme where each element knows when an internal failure occurs and removes itself from the system. IMA utilizes a lock step microprocessor design that communicates to a COTS backplane for input/output, and to a virtual backplane/sup /spl trade// (a reliable, high-speed serial bus such as 1394 or AFDX) for intra-system communication. The system functions are implemented using an ARINC-653 time and space partitioned operating system. The entire system provides the simplicity of a simplex system, implements the highest level of reliability provides complete flexibility to reconfigure both software applications and hardware interfaces, allows for rapid prototyping using low-cost COTS hardware, and is easily expandable beyond the initial point implementation. As the only 5th generation avionics architecture, the concepts incorporated into Honeywell's IMA are ideally suited to be the backbone of the next generation Crew Exploration Vehicle for Project Constellation.


Next generation space avionics: layered system implementation


Published:

IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine ( Volume: 20, Issue: 12, Dec. 2005 )

Issued:

29 Oct, 2004

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Abstract



Advances in electronics over the past decade have produced major improvements in the power and flexibility of computer systems. Unfortunately current avionics systems for space applications typically have not leveraged these COTS advantages. A decade ago, the state-of-the-art for avionics systems made a step change to the Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) used in the Boeing 777. This next generation avionics architecture is not based upon traditional Byzantine redundancy structures, but on a truth-based scheme where each element knows when an internal failure occurs and removes itself from the system. IMA utilizes a lock-step microprocessor design that communicates to a COTS Backplane for input/output, and to a Virtual Backplane/spl trade/ (a reliable high-speed serial bus) for intra-system communication. The system functions are implemented using a time and space partitioned operating system. The entire system provides the simplicity of a simplex system, implements the highest level of reliability providing complete flexibility to reconfigure both software applications and hardware interfaces, allows for rapid prototyping using low-cost COTS hardware, and is easily expandable beyond the initial point implementation. As the only 5/sup th/ generation avionics architecture, the concepts incorporated into Honeywell's IMA are ideally suited to be the backbone of the next generation Space Exploration Program avionics architectures.


A commercial ready, high reliable and high producible RWA design


Published:

41st Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference and Exhibit

Issued:

15 Apr, 2006

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Abstract



A changing satellite market, with an ever-increasing commercial presence, has driven industry to respond with minimal cost and high-volume production. This emergence fuels an increasing pressure on space component engineers to meet the high-volume, low-cost, short-cycle demand without compromising quality or performance. Honeywell is creatively meeting current commercial Reaction Wheel Assembly (RWA) component challenges with an evolutionary RWA design, the HR14, as part of its Constellation Class family of RWAs. This class of RWAs advances the state-of-the-art for large-volume, low-cost, high-producibility designs while preserving legendary Honeywell value in performance and expected on-orbit longevity.


Simplified Robotics Avionics System: A Integrated Modular Architecture Applied Across a Group of Robotic Elements


Published:

25th Digital Avionics Systems Conference, 2006 IEEE/AIAA

Issued:

16 Oct, 2006

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Abstract



The latest NASA initiative for Human Space, namely the Space Exploration Vision, which encompasses Project Constellation, provides new opportunities for system implementation. The second wave of development after Crew Exploration Vehicle and Crew Launch Vehicle development, and following Shuttle retirement, will be development of lunar base concepts and operations leading to early robotic missions. The current vision for lunar base implementation anticipates that there will be highly integrated robotic pre-construction operations and robotic assistants for the astronauts. In preparation for this robotics involvement, there is a series of robotic precursor missions to the Moon and Mars. Historically, many humans are required to control a single robot; in practice the Mars Exploration Rovers require a staff of approximately 70 to support continual operation of a single robotic rover. In addition robotic avionics has typically been customized for each robot. While this has been effective for prior robotic missions, the habitation and exploration of the Moon and Mars requires many robots working in tandem with humans. The limited NASA budget to implement the Space Exploration Vision requires that multiple robots be commanded by a minimal operations staff and that a common set of avionics electronics be used across the multitude of robots needed. Traditional robotic avionics do not address either the additional autonomy or commonality required by this new set of robotic missions. One solution to address these concepts is to apply a Honeywell patent pending architecture that uses an integrated modular avionics (IMA) approach across a multiplicity of robots. This concept treats a group of robotic elements as a single system. Instead of each robot having a separate avionics system, a single shared avionics system will be deployed across the robots. This sharing would be implemented using an IMA system approach with each element of the robotic system being connected using a Virtual Backplanetrade. The IMA approach is a next generation avionics architecture where each element knows when an internal failure occurs and removes itself from the system. IMA utilizes a fail passive design that communicates to a COTS backplane for input/output and to the aforementioned Virtual Backplanetrade for intra-system communication. Each robot implements either single or multiple hardware-enhanced ARINC-653 software partitions. Together these partitions form a single system that provides the simplicity of a simplex system; implements the highest levels of reliability; provides the flexibility to easily reconfigure both software applications and hardware interfaces; allows for rapid prototyping using low-cost COTS hardware; and is easily expandable beyond the initial point implementation. The avionics for each robot interfaces to the local sensors and effectors. The high-level control of the robot may be local or may reside on another robot, a group of robots, or a remote base station. From a system standpoint, control of multiple robots is viewed as a single system with multiple components as opposed to multiple individual systems interacting together. The system level control could include redundant elements spread across multiple robots depending on the level of fault tolerance and reliability that is required. The robotic system could also be dynamically reconfigured when multiple elements (robot assistants, robotic vehicles) join or leave the system, adjusting to changing mission needs. The application of IMA principles to robotics applications provides an infrastructure that has been demonstrated to reduce cost, schedule, and risk throughout the life of the program. In addition, this infrastructure provides the means for applying new approaches to solving problems such as multi-robot collaboration


Open Systems Architecture - Both Boon and Bane


Published:

25th Digital Avionics Systems Conference, 2006 IEEE/AIAA

Issued:

16 Oct, 2006

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Abstract



As with every major social revolution, the advent of the digital age was accompanied by growing pains. Many of the methods used in the first few decades were ultimately rejected for better and more proven approaches. Complex systems such as aircraft avionics or military weapons control systems are no longer the purview of the omniscient hardware guru or software wizard. These mystics have been replaced by processes that improve productivity and enhance long-term maintainability. However, in most cases application of these processes produces its own set of problems This does not necessarily mean that the practice should be discontinued; the perfect solution may not exist. It is important that system architects select those practices that best meet their specific goals, while accounting for the associated problems. Over the past several years managers have come to accept as axiomatic that the use of open systems reduces cost, decreases schedule, and eliminates risks to a program. However, the term, "open systems architecture" invokes a variety of interpretations. To some it implies no proprietary components. To others it implies adherence to documented standards. Still others see it as implying plug-and-play features. This paper investigates several observed interpretations of the meaning of "open systems architecture". Each interpretation exhibits both positive and negative aspects, which should be considered when architecting requirements for a specific system. Particularly for complex or long-life programs such as the NASA's space exploration vision, there is a threshold beyond which the benefits of increased openness are outweighed by the associated costs. This paper concludes with a recommendation regarding the optimal placement of the open architecture threshold line for complex, long-life programs


Design to Cost Methods to Lower the Avionics cost for NASA Commerical Crew Efforts


Published:

AIAA SPACE 2010 Conference & Exposition

Issued:

31 Aug, 2010

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Abstract



Over the past decade, as a leading avionics supplier, Honeywell has been investigating novel ways to reduce the acquisition and life cycle costs of equipment while simultaneously improving the quality and performance of avionics systems for the NASA manned spaceflight missions. The initial results of these studies was a space rated derivation of a commercial avionics system used in the Boeing 787 aircraft that was first proposed to NASA as a TA -3 response to the Space Launch Initiative. Over the past year, due to the results of the Augustine Commission and the subsequent release of the President's 2011 budget request for NASA, the importance of commercialization of launch services to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) has increased. Honeywell has l ong been a provider to the commercial space market (e.g. Atlas Launch Systems, Direct TV, cell phone constellations, etc.) of commercial space equipment. Even though this is for the commercial space market, the requirement on these devices has often exceeded NASA requirements (for example, the part derating requirements of MIL -STD -1547 are more stringent than the NASA MIL -STD -975 requirements). C ommercial satellites requirements remain high because they are insured by Lloyd's of London. Even with these high reliability and harsh radiation requirements, Honeywell design to cost efforts has resulted in a reduction of reaction wheel pricing . We now offer our product for ¼ the past price 15 years ago. As part of the Commercial Crew Launch Efforts, Honeywell has a wide range of experience that will allow solutions ranging from vibration isolation of low cost Off the Shelf (OTS) commercial aircraft avionics to full Fail- Op Fail -Op systems such as the original avionics proposed for Orion. This paper will discu ss several methods for implementation of avionics for Commercial Crew missions, both in the crew capsule and the launch vehicle and the design to cost methods allowing these avionics to meet the reduced pricing that the commercial satellite industry has en joyed for the last decade .


A Process to System Engineering: Creation of a System Engineering Process Model and its Deployment on the Orion Program


Published:

AIAA SPACE 2010 Conference & Exposition

Issued:

31 Aug, 2010

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Abstract



The term systems engineering can be traced back to Bell Telephone Laboratories in the 1940s. In the same timeframe, General Electric had an in house educational course that taught system engineering and electrical design. All of these early system engineering efforts were created to deal with the complexity of newly emerging technology and its appli cation to complex applications (e.g. flight dynamics of unstable systems, etc.). Since that time, many publications and textbooks have described the art of system engineering. Within the past decade, the system engineering process has been documented in many forms. In fact, the increased need for system engineering in a complex world resulted in the founding of International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE) in 1990. The most recent recognized best in class description of System Engineering has been institutionalized by Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) models. In the same timeframe development of CMMI for System Engineering, architectural framework techniques have further been institutionalized by the government with the various relea ses of Department of Defense Architecture Framework (DoDAF) Figure 1. Many companies, including Honeywell, have created Engineering Process Models (EPMs) to institut ionalize their system engineering process and allow for certification by the Software Engineering Institute established by Carnegie Mellon. This paper describes the process that Honeywell executed to establish an Engineering Process Modes, and our subsequent selection of CMMI for that model. In addition, the Honeywell 3 -view system Architecture Framework process will be compared to DoDAF and the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook (NASA/SP -2007- 6105 Rev 1). The Altair deployment of the 3 -view framework is included as an exammple . A final segment of the paper covers the observations of the implementation of system engineering for the avionics system on the Orion program and lessons learned from that program.


IMA Readiness for Autonomous Robotic Systems in Extraterrestrial Surface Exploration Missions


Published:

AIAA SPACE 2010 Conference & Exposition

Issued:

31 Aug, 2010

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Abstract



Recent developments in hardware readiness are closing the technological gaps which limited the implementation of robotic autonomy in extraterrestrial surface exploration missions. Innovative applications or wireless technology and avionics architectural principles drawn from the Orion crew module, to name one example, provide solutions for several of these gaps. If future space exploration missions are to grow significantly more complex, greater levels of autonomy must be afforded to robotic systems. This paper describes how Orion's avionics architecture attributes can be leveraged to implement an independent, deterministic, "Safety Partition” that prevents non- deterministic autonomous applications from issuing unsafe commands. The certification issue endemic to having autonomous applications alongside humans is also addressed, Robust avionic architectures by themselves are not sufficient, requiring aggressive innovations in size, weight, and power, to allow the avionics hardware architecture to meet stringent robotic mission requirements. The emerging next generation of integrated modular avionics addresses this challenge with smaller, but very capable platforms. Another technology gap being addressed through the use of avionics architectural principles and deterministic wireless technology is the coordination of multiple autonomous Systems. As a proof of concept, Honeywell has developed various algorithms and wireless hardware that lead to a deterministic, fault tolerant, reliable wireless backplane. Honeywell has developed a laboratory facility based upon the Simulation & Modeling for Acquisition, Requirements, and Training. (SMART) concepts. Through this SMARTlab™ facility multi-robot collaboration can be achieved via interaction of real rind simulated robots, rather than requiring the presence of several costly, physical robots. By filling technology gaps associated with space based autonomous systems, recent advances in wireless and simulation technology, along with Orion architectural principles, -lett:10;ft, provide the means for decreasing operational costs and simplifying problems associated with autonomous systems, including those requiring the collaborative work of multiple robotic assets.


Applying Orion Avionics Architectural Principles to Space Robotics


Published:

AIAA SPACE 2010 Conference & Exposition

Issued:

31 Aug, 2010

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Abstract



On January 14, 2004, President George W. Bush announced a new vision for space exploration. Achieving the vision will require significant support from autonomous agents and robotic systems: from rendezvous and docking to in-space assembly; from in situ mining and refining to mobile astronaut assistants. The current NASA approach to robotic operations requires in4yJifiutions in order to support potentially dozens or hundreds or autonomous systems operating simultaneously. Currently, robotic operations, such as For the Mars Exploration Rovers, require a team of several individuals for each robot. Economic realities preclude this same level of support for the numerous autonomous systems that will be required to make the space exploration vision a reality. Increased autonomy, with the attendant decrease in required operator interaction is key to providing a cost-effective solution to this problem. However, increased autonomy normally implies decreased determinism. Governmental agencies have been .notoriously reluctant certify non-deterministic systems, particularly when humans may be affected as will be the case with many or the Space Exploration autonomous agents. A secondary concern is the production cost of robots, While there are families of robots currently being developed by NASA, generally speaking each robot is Individually designed and manufactured, This paper proposes applying proven architectural principles from advanced aircraft avionics to autonomous systems in space. For the past decode, Honeywell has developed multiple implementations of what has been described as the fifth generation avionics architecture. This architecture, known Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA), provides a system that requires significantly less size, weight, and power than previous avionics architectures. As importantly, these architectural principles simplify the effort required to design, develop. test, integrate, certify. operate, maintain, and upgrade software applications and hardware components, The success of IMA on commercial and military avionics systems encourages the application of these same architectural principles to related systems, including the Orion Crew Explosion vehicle.. This paper describes those architectural principals that have proven instrumental to the success of IMA in aircraft avionics. In general, these principles Include modularity in the hardware and software architecture, robust time and spare table-driven coordinated operations, and fail-passive modules, Adherence to these principles provides a hardware and software infrastructure that minimizes the Impact of system modifications, whether tailoring a core system tor a specific application, changing a mission scenario, or upgrading components. Additionally, this infrastructure provides the means for isolating non-deterministic applications from the remainder of the system. This protects the autonomous system, and any humans or equipment in the area, from unforeseen negative consequences that may arise from the use of non•deterministic applications. A system architecture that can assure the safely of humans and equipment against the effects of non-deterministic applications may prove sufficient to bridge the gap chat bar, existed between non-deterministic systems and government certification. Combined with the appropriate applications and components, architectural principles drawn from the proven success or Honeywell's IMA systems provides a simple and cost •effective means of providing the autonomous agents necessary Co achieve the goaI of "Moon, Mars, and Beyond."


One size DOESN'T fit all: Honeywell TA -11 Roadmap Response


Published:

The Fourth Workshop on... Fault-Tolerant Spaceborne Computing Employing New Technologies, 2011

Issued:

14 Feb, 2011

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Abstract



The NASA Flight Computing roadmap ( TA11) is based upon the notion that a multi -core flight computer will lower Size, Weight, & Power for command & control functions. Honeywell’s 50 years experience (NASA human, commercial & military satellites) & commercial & military aircraft & unmanned drones demonstrate LARGE differences in performance needs for vehicles. We have found four categories of flight computing: Fault Tolerant Human Rated Dynamic Control; Satellite bus attitude control; Satellite Payload processing; Robotics. A 2010 flight computer study to create a multi -core device to address the first three performance categories was completed showing a single device did not meet performance needs, but two designs using common building blocks did. Each has unique implementation & tipping points. We found a single design did not meet either system performance need and therefore would not be a preferred solution for NASA or any space organization. In addition to processing ele ments, Honeywell finds that implementation and standardization of a unified flight computing bus and improved Input/Output capability need to be developed. We recommend that NASA modify their roadmap to address each of these areas.


Progression of an Open Architecture: from Orion to Altair and LSS


Published:

The Sixth Meeting on Fault-Tolerant Spaceborne Computing Employing New Technologies, 2013

Issued:

29 Aug, 2013

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Abstract



NASA has embarked on a very ambitious plan for space exploration over the next several decades. The cornerstone of this activity is the Constellation Program. Even with the retirement of the Space Shuttle and the NASA development budget growing from approximately $3.5 Billion to approximately $7 billion in 2011, this budget will require a different model for NASA implementa tion than was used on the Space Shuttle or the Space Station. The Constellation “system of systems” that cont ains seven major elements must be implemented within approximately twice the budget that a single space stati on element was implemented. Over the past decade, industry managers including NASA managers, have come to accept as axiomatic that the use of open systems reduces cost, decreases schedule, and eliminates ri sks to a program. However, the term, "open systems architecture" invokes a variety of int erpretations. To some it implies no pr oprietary components. To others it implies adherence to documented standards. Still others se e it as implying plug-and-play features. Honeywell has worked with NASA and other customers over the last five years to understand the voice of the customer relating to the benefits of varying level of open arch itecture. As Honeywell has developed the detailed architecture for the Orion vehicle, the team has stri ved to create an open architecture approach portable to Altair and beyond. This paper/presentation details the open features of the 6th Generation architecture and the ongoing enhancements to the Orion in work to finalize an open system to proposed th roughout the Constellation architecture. In addition, the path to a real time comput ational platform useful throughout the Fault-Tolerant Spaceborne Computing community is extrapolated an d discussed. This paper concludes with observed interpretations of the meaning of "open systems architect ure" and the benefits to NASA within the long-life Constellation Program.